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George Washington Frontier Heritage Area


People and Places of the
George Washington Frontier Heritage Area


    In order to help organizations in the heritage area develop interpretative stories on events and people, we include here a listing of some of the many people and events of the French and Indian War era that make this heritage area so rich. We invite the submission of more listings. Please note that the database began as a listing from the colonial newspapers. It now includes incidents mentioned in local histories, so entries may be duplicated. We invite you to send us information on incidents in your county .

dateline (place) year date name location story (short) source page
Williamsburg 1754 2/14 South Branch of Potowmack French murder whole family on the South Branch of Potomac; another man robbed of his son by French Indians LucierFIWNACN1 2 & 3
Philadelphia 1754 2/16 French Indians observed near the Ohio to have Mr. Cooper's child of Potomac; the Kuskuskies tried to rescue him but they got away. LucierFIWNACN1 6
Philadelphia 1754 6/13 Winchester A gentleman from Virginia arrived from North Carolina they came through Winchester they saw 21 French prisoners. They tried to intercept prisoners, but a French deserter informed on them; 14 Frenchmen were killed and 21 made prisoners. LucierFIWNACN1 65 & 66
Philadelphia 1754 12/5 Colonel Sharpe From an Officer at Will's Creek it is reported the fort is complete and well built for winter. LucierFIWNACN1 130
Philadelphia 1755 7/3 Abraham Johnson Pattersons Creek Abraham Johnson reported Indians had killed and wounded several people on Patterson's Creek and many missing; 11 murdered LucierFIWNACN1 215
Philadelphia 1755 6/29 North Branch of Potomack, Will's Creek Murder of one Williams and his wife and grandson on the North Branch of the Potomac, 12 miles above the mouth of Will's Creek. LucierFIWNACN1 215
Augusta Co. 1754-55 Oct-Aug New R. & Holston R. Oct. 1754-Aug. 1755 21 killed (Col. Patton & Lt. Wright, Casper Barger, Mrs. Draper & child, 31 July, 1755) on New River & Holston River, seven wounded, 9 taken prisoner(Mrs. Ingles & 2 children; Mrs. Draper, Jr., Henry Leonard). KegleyKVF; AbbottPGW2 210; 2-19
Williamsburg 1755 7/21 Captain Stallnicker, Colonel Stewart, William Long Augusta Court-House More inhabitants being cut off on Holton's River. Captain Sallnicker and wife taken prisoner; his mother and 4 children escaped; more were taken prisoner and killed; Colonel Stewart and William Long on their return from Fort Cumberland were shot at three different times, but were unhurt. LucierFIWNACN1 234
Annapolis 1755 7/31 Staut Fort Cumberland Arrival of Staut at Fort Cumberland gave account; middle of last June he and his family carried off from the back part of the province by a party of Indians to Fort DuQuesne; many Indians set off for Canada with Staut as prisoner, he made his escape with difficulty and arrived at Fort Cumberland. LucierFIWNACN1 253
Williamsburg 1755 8/8 Colonel James Patton Augusta County Augusta County murder of Colonel James Patton by Indians last day of July on branch of Roanoke River. LucierFIWNACN1 258
Greenbrier River 1755 Aug. Henry Boughman Boughman's Fort (now Mercer Co.) Indians attacked 60 settlers in Boughman's Fort on the Greenbrier River and captured it killing many and taking captives. BakerFIWFC 10, 17
Williamsburg 1755 9/19 Captain Lewis Augusta 50 Indians supposed to be Shawnees appeared on Green Briar River; they killed and captured 15 people, burned 11 houses and drove off 500 head of cattle, horses & c. Several fled to a small fort where they were blocked up by enemy four days. Captain Lewis marched to relief, but Indians fled. LucierFIWNACN1 302
Williamsburg 1755 10/3 Captain Dickinson Augusta Militia under Captain Dickinson attacked a party of Northern Indians; 1 was killed and several wounded. Two Catawba boys that were prisoners were retaken. One soldier killed. LucierFIWNACN1 319
Annapolis 1755 10/9 Colonel Cresap Patterson's Creek, Frederick County A person from Colonel Cresap's told the Indians had taken a man prisoner who was going to Fort Cumberland from Frasier's Plantation. Fell in with man and wife, the man escaped, the woman never heard from again. Party of Indian killed or carried off Benjamin Maile of Frederick County on Patterson's Creek; many families murdered, carried away or entirely broken up that settlement LucierFIWNACN1 324 & 325
Annapolis 1755 10/9 Lieutenant Stoddert, Colonel Cresap, Major Prather Town-Creek express sent to Lt. Stoddert and the neighborhood by Colonel Cresap that Indians had passed by and cut off people who dwelt on Town-Creek. Daniel Ashloff gives same account. LucierFIWNACN1 324 & 325
Hampshire Co. 1755 Oct. McKracken Patterson's Cr. Capt. Chas. Lewis buries McKracken
Philadelphia 1755 9/21 Fort Cumberland from Fort Cumberland two Indians shot arrows into a young man; Indians tracks seen about three miles off LucierFIWNACN1 326
Philadelphia 1755 9/21 a Lord who escaped from two Frenchmen and five Indians after blow by hatchet, and a body of the enemy found nearby LucierFIWNACN1 326
Williamsburg 1755 10/10 G. W. Cumberland 150 Indians appeared and killed or captured upwards of twenty families. LucierFIWNACN1 326
Philadelphia 1755 10/6 Fort Cumberland, Patterson's Creek Indians have cut off communication with Ft. Cumberland and have destroyed whole settlement of Patterson's Creek, and continuing down Potomac R. Indians carry off all the young women; about 100 killed and taken. LucierFIWNACN1 329
Ft. Dinwiddie 1755 Oct. Capt. Andrew Lewis Jackson's River Capt. Lewis moves to strengthen Ft. Dinwiddie BakerFIWFC 10
Philadelphia 1755 10/30 G. W. Winchester to South Branch of Potomack militia of Domfires, Prince, William and Fairfax counties were draughted about 160 marched out of Winchester towards the South Branch of Potomac where murders were committed. About 200 of Virginia Regiment set out for the same place the next day by G.W.; 110 more from James River crossed the ridge with 130 more at Will's Creek, will have about 500 men fit for duty at Fort Cumberland in the pay of the colony LucierFIWNACN1 336
Philadelphia 1755 12/25 Captain William Baylis, Captain Storther and Brown, Captain Ashley, Captain Cock Hampshire County South end of Potomac in Hampshire County, Virginia now safe from the Indian enemy, under Captain William Baylis with 80 men. Also Captains Strother and Brown from Culpeper county with 60 men who with Captains Ashby's and Cock's companies make about 200 active men LucierFIWNACN1 352 & 353
Philadelphia 1755 12/20 Augusta County Two women from New River were prisoners; escaped took 40 days LucierFIWNACN2 9
Augusta Co. 1756 Feb. Augusta Co. Robert Looney killed near Alexander Sawyer's KegleyKVF 225
Philadelphia 1756 4/15 Michael Tealoit, G. W. Ashby's Fort Ashby's Fort on Patterson's Creek attacked by 100 Indians; killed 6 men & 2 horses; carried off two boys of Michael Tealoit's. LucierFIWNACN2 49
Williamsburg 1756 4/23 Captain Mercer, Lieutenant Carter, Lieutenant Williams Fort Edwards Captain Mercer's party defeated near Fort Edwards on Cape Capon. Captain John Mercer and Lt. Carter and 15 volunteers killed. LucierFIWNACN2 55
Philadelphia 1756 4/13 The Sieur Donville 23 volunteers skirmish with 15 or 16 Indians. Frenchman the Sieur Donville killed and his orders found. LucierFIWNACN2 58
Williamsburg 1756 4/30 Expresses from Winchester advise considerable French and Indians butchered several families. Route to Ft. Cumberland cut off for 3 weeks. LucierFIWNACN2 59
Williamsburg 1756 5/7 G. W., Captain Savage, Captain Mercer, Mr. Cressop Winchester Captain Savage found Captain Mercer's scalp; Michael Cresap was killed in attack. LucierFIWNACN2 59 & 60
Augusta Co. 1756 6/26 Ephraim Vause, Capt. Smith Indians destroy Vause's fort; capture Capt.John Smith, Peter Luney, Mary Ingles(wife of John) & 2 dau., Wm. Batton, Joseph Smigh, William Pepper, James Bell, Christopher Hicks, Benj. Davis, Mary English, John Walker, Cole, Graham. Killed: Lt. John Smith, John Tracy, John English, John Robinson. KegleyKVF 193,226,232,234
Philadelphia 1757 3/10 Augusta County Four persons carried off by Indians from South of Potomac; Came to Augusta county with four scalps and French prisoner LucierFIWNACN2 214
Williamsburg 1757 3/21 King Heigler Lunenburg County King Heigler and 14 Cherokees, 20 Catawba's, 1 French Prisoner and 5 scalps arrived; Indians marching directly to Fort Cumberland LucierFIWNACN2 215
Philadelphia 1757 4/11 French prisoner mention that two men who were supposed to be killed are prisoners at Fort Du Quesne. LucierFIWNACN2 229
Philadelphia 1757 4/24 2 Catawba's were killed; the whole body to Catawba's and about 100 white men set out for them took 30-60 days provisions LucierFIWNACN2 230
Philadelphia 1757 6/23 Lieutenant Holiday, Jacob Sneevely Near Maryland Line Lieutenant Holiday and 3 of his party found dead, 4 missing; woman carried off by Indians near Jacob Sneevely's near Maryland line. LucierFIWNACN2 260
New York 1757 6/4 Winchester Party of French Neutrals near Winchester made their escape from that place in their way to Crown Point LucierFIWNACN2 268
Philadelphia 1757 6/28 Captain John Smith 70 commanded by Captain John Smith went out to captives held in blockhouse they fought and killed 32 Indians and 3 Frenchmen, but had to surrender when their house was burned; four Indian tribes divided the prisoners, they came to Lower Shawanese Town; Tortured , roasted and ate Cole LucierFIWNACN2 274
Lunenburg 1757 Aug-Sep Renick, Dennis, Crawford, McFerrin James R., Cedar Cr., Craig's Cr., Catawba R. north of James River about dozen killed and two dozen prisoners; killed: Robert Renick, John Crawford, James McFerrin; prisoners: Mrs. Renick & 7 children, Mrs. Dennis, Wm. Ferrin KegleyKVF 251
Philadelphia 1757 10/6 Cedar and Stony Creeks 34 inhabitants were killed or carried off from the Cedar and Stony Creeks; some murders committed 13 miles of Lord Fairfax's house LucierFIWNACN2 307
Philadelphia 1757 11/17 Winchester Party of Cherokees and two white men went to a mill being burned by Indians on Stoney-Creek; they killed two, and wounded a third LucierFIWNACN2 322
Annapolis 1757 12/8 Cox Virginia side of Potowmack, Conecheague Cox and another man on the Va side of the Potomac, above mouth of Conecocheague skirmished with Indians, man killed; Cox escaped. LucierFIWNACN2 337 & 338
1757 11/4 South Branch Mountains party of Cherokee came upon Shawanese on South Branch Mountains; they killed two; one got away. LucierFIWNACN2 338
Annapolis 1757 12/15 Captain M'Kemzie, John Cox, John Lane Pearsall's Fort Capt M'Kenzie with some Virginians went to bring in the Dunkers; One of men was John Lane who was hunting with John Cox; he escaped and brought in an Indian scalp to Pearsall's Fort. LucierFIWNACN2 343
Annapolis 1757 12/22 Lieutenant Riley, Captain Joshua Beall Lieutenant Riley and Captain Joshua Beall's Company brought a French cadet who he took prisoner near Fort Cumberland. LucierFIWNACN2 344
Philadelphia 1758 1/5 Captain McKenzie Captain McKenzie was sent out for Dunkers he found nothing but some spears that were French LucierFIWNACN3 1
Roanoke R. 1758 Jan. Gatlive, Love Roanoke R. area James Gatlive, Joseph Love  & William Lover ; prisoners: maid & child, Snodgrass girl KegleKVF 253
Philadelphia 1758 4/27 David Miller, Aaron Jenkins, Ensign Coleby Chew, Jack Lane, James Cox Winchester David Miller was fired at near house of Aaron Jenkins about 12 miles from Winchester; some country people saw men painted and dressed like Indians; neighbors went to Pattersons fort and Ensign Coleby Chew was ordered out; the persons proved to be the famous Jack Lane, killed on the spot and James Cox who was mortally wounded. LucierFIWNACN3 59
Williamsburg 1758 5/5 Lieutenant Dunlap Indians are very numerous on the frontier, they have taken and burnt two forts where one ranging companies were stationed; 40 were killed and scalped and Lieutenant Dunlap with 19 men missing LucierFIWNACN3 61
Williamsburg 1758 7/7 Augusta County, Winchester, Augusta Court House Indians had killed or captured 26 people between Winchester and Augusta Court House; 300 inhabitants were moving to the other side of the Blue Ridge LucierFIWNACN3 96
Philadelphia 1758 8/3 Colonel Byrd Ray's Town, Fort Cumberland two men at Fort Cumberland were scalped and their mangled bodies brought in and interred; Cherokees were sent in pursuit; on the 16th they brought in two scalps, one French one Indian. LucierFIWNACN3 121
Williamsburg 1758 9/8 Captain Robert Wade Rangers under Captain Robert Wade pursued five Indians; he killed 4, the fifth threw himself into the river and escaped; they were Sawnese with two white scalps. LucierFIWNACN3 147
Annapolis 1758 10/5 Captain Sprigg, Mr. Lockett Fort Cumberland from Fort Cumberland Captain Sprigg and Mr. Lockett were searching the inward magazine; it blew up; the fire was extinguished and the place saved; loss of the two gentlemen LucierFIWNACN3 164


The source listed as "AbbottPGW" is The Papers of George Washington; ed. by W.W. Abbott; University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., 1983; the last number is the volume number. 

The source listed as "BakerFIWFC" is French & Indian War in Frederick County by Norman Baker; The Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, Winchester, Va., 2000.

The source listed as "KegleyKVF" is Kegley's Virginia Frontier by F. B. Kegley; The Southwest Virginia Historical Society, Roanoke, Va., 1938. 

The source listed as "LucierFIWNACN" is French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 1, 1754-1755, Armand Francis Lucier, Heritage Books, 1999; the final number is the volume number.

We hope to have more references to people and places as we progress in this project. We invite your recommendations. Please send full information on the documentation supporting the entries .
updated: 11/6/12